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Horses + Medications

    • Ammonium chloride is used off label and given by mouth to treat metabolic alkalosis, struvite stones, and certain toxicities occasionally in small animals and more often in large animals. The most common side effects include pain at the injection site or stomach upset if given by mouth. Do not use in pets with severe liver, kidney, heart, or lung disease. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

    • Carbamazepine is given my mouth and is used off label in dogs, cats, and horses to treat seizures, pain, and behavior disorders. Common side effects in animals are unknown, but may include dizziness, sleepiness, nausea, and vomiting. Do not use in pets that have recently used amitraz, are pregnant, or have bone marrow disease. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

    • Dexamethasone is given on and off label, by mouth or injection, to treat various inflammatory, autoimmune, and adrenal gland conditions. It can also be used off label as a diagnostic test. Common side effects include increased drinking, urination and/or appetite, dull/dry haircoat, weight gain, pot-bellied appearance, muscle weakness, panting, vomiting, or diarrhea. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it, have systemic fungal infections, diabetes, or stomach or intestinal ulcers, or are taking NSAIDs. It should not be used in rabbits or in surgical pets. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

    • Diphenhydramine is given by mouth or as an injection and is used on and off label to treat allergic reactions, motion sickness, and to induce sedation. Side effects include sleepiness, and less commonly dry mouth and gastrointestinal upset. Diphenhydramine should not be used in pets that are allergic to this medication and should be used cautiously in pets with glaucoma, enlarged prostate, thyroid or heart disease, or are lactating. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

    • Phenobarbital is used off label and given by mouth or as an injection to treat seizures or to sedate your pet. Common side effects include sleepiness, increased thirst, urination, and/or appetite. Do not use this medication in pets with liver, lung, or kidney disease or those that are allergic to barbiturates. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

    • Procainamide is used off label and given by mouth or injection to treat abnormal heart rhythms. Side effects may include loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, low blood pressure, less effective heart beats, and rhythm abnormalities. Do not use in Doberman Pinchers, Boxers, pets that are allergic to it or related drugs, or pets with myasthenia gravis, torsade de pointes, cardiac glycoside intoxication, or heart block. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

    • Propranolol is given by mouth or injection and is used off-label to treat abnormal heart rhythms. Side effects are not common but may include lack of energy and diarrhea. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it or pets with heart block, heart failure, asthma, or a slow heart rate. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.

    • Rifampin is commonly used off label to treat infections in horses, and occasionally in dogs and cats. It is usually given by mouth in the form of a capsule or compounded liquid. The most common side effects are vomiting, diarrhea, or reduced appetite. Liver dysfunction is also possible. Use with caution in pets that have pre-existing liver disease, are pregnant, are elderly, or are lactating. If a negative reaction occurs, please call your veterinary office.